Adapted Fitness & Sports

Resources and Organizations

National Center on Health, Physical Activity and Disability (NCHPAD)

The NCHPAD is a resource center on health promotion through increased participation in physical and social activities. NCHPAD serves people with physical, cognitive, and sensory disabilities and activities include fitness and aquatics, recreation and sports, and adaptive equipment training. NCHPAD's features a variety of resources and services related to physical activity, health promotion, and disability. More information can be found at

National Sports Center for the Disabled (NSCD) 

The NSCD is a Colorado-based company that offers adaptive in-person programs for skiing, camping, river rafting, rock climbing, shooting sports, sailing, therapeutic horseback riding, and water sports. The organization also offers virtual programming, both live and on-demand. These programs include adaptive workouts, tech talks, environmental outreach, and more. To learn more about the NSCD or to start participating in some of their virtual programs, please visit

National Ability Center (NAC)

The NAC offers sports, recreation, and educational programs for all individuals. They adapt recreational and outdoor adventure activities to be inclusive of all ability levels. The current topics of their virtual programs include: camping, hiking, and cycling. To view their virtual programs, please visit

Move United

Move United is a national non-profit organization that provides sports and recreation opportunities to individuals with disabilities. It's community-based chapter network allows programs to be adapted based on the needs of different communities. Some sports offered by Move United include alpine and Nordic skiing, snowboarding, biathlon, kayaking, water skiing, sailing, scuba, surfing, rafting, outrigger canoeing, fishing, hiking, golf, athletics, archery, cycling, running/wheeling, rock climbing, equestrian and others. Their website also offers information about adaptive equipment for each sport. For more information, please visit

Podcast: Adaptive Sports: Limitless Opportunities

Shana Harrington, PT, PhD, SCS, MTC, is a Paralympic swimmer who has been involved with adaptive sports for twenty years. In this podcast, she discusses her take on adaptive sports and the benefits of participating. You can download the podcast here.

Stroke Rehab

Stroke Rehab provides many resources related to rehabilitation and fitness following stroke. To learn about home exercise equipment that may be useful for you in your fitness journey after stroke, you can visit their page here. Another option for fitness following stroke is to find an adaptive fitness center or gym. These facilities are accessible to individuals with disabilities and individuals in a wheelchair and they offer equipment that can be used by stroke survivors. Stroke Rehab offers a list of some adaptive fitness centers and gyms around the country, which can be found here.

Types of Adaptive Sports and Equipment 

Types of Adaptive Sports and Equipment

Adaptive Skiing


  • Improves stability and balance for skiers
  • Three track (pictured above) and four track skiing styles are best for individuals with hemiplegia.

Tip Clamps 

  • Attach to the tip of each ski, allowing the skis to remain parallel or in a wedge position. 
  • Also allows the skier's stronger leg to help control the movement of the more impaired leg when skiing

Mono-skiing or Bi-skiing 

  • Mono- or bi- skiing refers to seated skiing with either one or two skis below a bucket seat
  • They require outriggers and/or tethers to a ski instructor behind the skier. 
  • Mono-skiing requires more core and arm strength than bi-skiing.

Adaptive Golf

Grip Mate 

  • Helps you hold onto your golf club during your swing if you have limited hand function
  • Helpful for gripping other sports tools such as a bat, tennis racket, or pool stick

Golf Claw 

  • Allows you to retrieve a golf ball without having to bend down and reach
  • Useful for those with balance issues or arm range of motion deficits

Adaptive Golf Stick Combo 

  • Allows you to place the tee in the ground, golf ball on the tee without bending, and hit the ball with the same device. 
  • This is also an ideal golf club to use while seated. 

Adaptive Water Sports

Adaptive Kayaking

  • Use angled oars to control the motion of your oars with just one arm and/or passively guide your affected arm. 
  • Apply outriggers to the kayak for improved balance and safety.

Adaptive Surfing

  • The Velto Adaptive Surf System allows individuals with limited mobility to control body movements (with leg support) and maintain balance on the surf board. 
  • Most surfers with disabilities are highly trained and skilled. 
  • One should not engage in surfing without proper training and supervision.

Adaptive Waterskiing

  • An Arm Sling handle wraps around your shoulders allowing you to stabilize by holding on with your unaffected hand and opposite shoulder. 
  • Sit Skis with an adjustable seat  allow you to sit while waterskiing as it requires a high level of trunk control.. 

Adaptive Team Sports
For adaptive and competitive team sports contacts by state, click here and for contacts from Move United for all sports click here.

Adaptive Baseball and Softball

If you want to practice on your own or join a league, sources recommend:

  • Hit off a tee if you struggle with  coordination and proper timing.
  • Strap a mitt to your affected hand with an ace bandage for catching 
  • Use mitts and balls with velcro or manually putting velcro on equipment. 
  • For safety, start small by playing catch 
  • More information about the specifics of competitive adaptive softball and adaptive softball wheelchairs can be found here

Adaptive Basketball

  • Most players use a sports wheelchair. Players are not necessarily bound to a wheelchair, but may have disabilities that impact walking or running. 

There are options for one armed manual wheelchair propulsion:

Adaptive Soccer

Other more inexpensive options include: 

  • Use a brightly colored ball for easier tracking
  • Use a foam ball or deflated ball for easier ball control
  • Playing on a smaller field with well-defined barriers 
  • Use a goal target that makes noise to add another sensory feature that improves the ease of play. 
  • Sources also recommend using walking instead of running.

Adaptive Partner Sports

Adaptive Tennis

Adapt the Game or Equipment 

  • Make the court size smaller
  • Use a larger and softer ball
  • Use a racquet with a shorter handle and larger paddle area
  • Use sports tape to secure the racquet onto your hand

Adapt Your Technique

  • Use just one handed techniques (single-handed serving) 
  • Watch a video to learn to serve with just your right hand 
  • Watch a video to learn to serve with just your left hand 
  • There are specific sports wheelchairs for tennis if you struggle with endurance or standing.

Adaptive Billiards

  • Use the EZ-Bridge so you can use one hand to exert the power to hit the ball. This device has wheels for easy mobilization and supports the pool cue by the tip so only one hand is required. 
  • Directions for making your own cue stick cradle can be found here on page 21 along with other DIY ideas for adaptive equipment for various activities. 
  • Adaptive cuffs can be used to hold the pool stick with you affected hand.

Adaptive Table Tennis

  • Table tennis can be played seated or in standing. 
  • Usually played with one hand - use your unaffected hand
  • According to a research presentation, table tennis can be beneficial for both physical and cognitive rehabilitation.

Play using your affected hand and compensate for reduced grasp:

Adaptive Leisure Sports

Adaptive Bowling

  • Played in a wheelchair or in standing with a bowling ball ramp if you struggle with arm movements, strength, trunk stability.
  • Use a grip handle bowling ball that has a retractable handle for easier grip on the ball. Additionally, 
  • Use a ball pusher to push the ball on the ground for people that may have limited shoulder movement.

Adaptive Boccia

  • Use a boccia ball ramp to roll the ball down the court. 
  • Use the boccia ball retriever, which extends to pick up the balls, if you have limited arm mobility or balance or use a wheelchair. 
  • To learn more about finding an adaptive boccia ball organization near you to join and practice, contact USA Boccia

Adaptive Horseback Riding

  • Use a lift or ramp to get on the horse
  • Use a saddle with a raised back for more trunk support
  • Use customized stirrups for better balance
  • Use cushioned saddle to prevent pressure sores
  • Adaptive horseback riding is a sport that should be done with supervision from a professional at a facility or camp near you, in CT.  

Adaptive Biking or Cycling

Adaptive Biking

Riding a bicycle is a great form of cardio that can benefit your overall health after having a stroke. 

  • For people with limited balance, using a tri-wheeled bicycle or 
  • Use a bicycle  seat with a high back may help maintain an upright position. 
  • Bike with a tandem bicycle, where you and a loved one can both benefit from the activity, for those with limited leg movement, balance issues, or a visual impairment. 
  • Use a steering damper to limit unwanted movement at the handlebars for increased stability. Click here to see a video of Tom Wheeler discussing his modifications and techniques for better competitive mountain biking with one arm.
  • Any intense or competitive sport post stroke should be addressed by a professional.

Hand Cycling

  • Hand cycles come with various style seats to accommodate for the varying levels of trunk control after an injury. 
  • The Mono Mano adapted tricycle allows you to bike with the use of just one arm and leg

Adaptive Yoga

The safest option for adaptive yoga for people with limited balance and mobility is typically chair yoga. All chair yoga poses are adapted to be completed in a seated position, requiring much less balance, core stability, and coordination, while still achieving a good stretch, effective breathing, and inner peace. Yoga promotes body awareness and a mind-body connection, which is crucial for effective rehabilitation and stress management.

Consider these chair yoga adaptations for hemiplegia

  • Use two handed techniques such as cradling your affected arm with your unaffected arm or guiding your affected arm through the motions with your unaffected arm. Also, 
  • Use the hook method by scooping your affected leg with your unaffected leg at the ankle can help guide your legs through yoga stretches. 
  • Use a table or the arms of your chair for balance or support of your affected arm is also an adaptation that promotes safety for those with balance and motor impairments. 
  • For ideas for adaptive yoga click here, with consideration to the adaptations listed above. 
  • To find seated yoga classes in your area click here and for a virtual yoga class, click here.

Adaptive Dance

Dance requires movement from the whole body, which makes it an excellent tool for rehabilitation that is motivating for many people.

Adaptations for dance are similar to those of adaptive yoga (above), for instance, 

  • Dance can be completed in a seated, standing, or stationary position if you have limitations in balance. 
  • There are several adaptive dance studios all around the  U.S., including Tap Fever Studios, which offer virtual adaptive dance.
  • A dancer with CP reports a main part of his dance routine is controlling his breathing. Breath control is a major component in your ability to control your tone and spasticity. 
  • Make sure you stretch!

Adaptive Sailing and Boating

Safety Adaptations for Sailing and Boating

  • Install chairs with lateral supports and a high back 
  • Install a seatbelt for those with limited trunk control 
  • Use nonslip bath mats or surfaces to place on the floor of the boat for fall prevention
Adaptations for Driving/Steering

More information about adaptive sailing can be found here.